Archive for category New York State Health Care Proxy
The Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act (the “ACT”) was signed into law by President Obama on December 17, 2010. While the ACT provides sweeping changes to the rules governing many tax laws, it finally addressed the rebounding estate tax which was set to return to 2001 levels after disappearing completely in 2010. The purpose of this blog is to highlight only two very specific changes made by the ACT that may directly affect you and your overall estate plan.
1. New and unified estate tax, gift tax and generation-skipping transfer tax exemption rates have been set.
Without the ACT, the federal estate tax exemption would have fallen back to the 2001 level of $1 million and the estate tax rate for estates valued over this amount would have maxed out at 55%. The ACT changes that. For the years 2011 and 2012, the federal estate tax exemption will be $5 million and the estate tax rate will be maxed out at 35%. An estate tax exemption is the amount of money you can own at death before the federal government will tax the remaining assets. In 2009, the exemption rate was $3.5 million. In 2010, the estate tax exemption was repealed such that no estate tax was owed to the federal government regardless of the amount of money with which you passed away. The new $5 million estate tax exemption rate is obviously better than the $3.5 million rate in 2009, but is not as advantageous as the 2010 unlimited exemption amount. However, it will still be an attractive exemption amount for many of you with estates totaling under $5 million.
In addition to the return of a limited estate tax exemption, the estate tax has also become unified with federal gift and generation-skipping transfer taxes such that the gift tax exemption and generation-skipping tax exemption are also $5 million each and the maximum tax rate for both of these taxes is also 35%. The gift tax exemption is the amount an individual can gift over his or her lifetime and not pay a gift tax. The gift, if over $13,000 per person, per year, must be recorded with the IRS, but no immediate tax consequences will occur. At the same time, however, if you gift during your lifetime, your estate tax exemption will be reduced by the same amount. For example, if you gift $2 million in 2010 and pass away in 2011, your estate tax exemption will only be $3 million instead of the whole $5 million. The same is true for the generation-skipping tax which is applied if you skip a generation (i.e. give gifts directly to your grandchildren or great grandchildren.)
2. “Portability” of federal estate tax exemption for married couples.
Perhaps even more advantageous is the advent of “portability” of the federal estate tax exemption. Prior to the ACT, couples wanting to take advantage of each of their federal estate tax exemption amounts needed to undergo specific estate planning that allowed them to capture their exemption amount before leaving their spouse their estate. Tools such as Credit Shelter Trusts and “AB Trusts” were needed to accomplish this goal. Under the ACT, no such planning is needed. The new $5 million exemption per person is portable between spouses so your spouse will automatically pass on her exemption amount. In other words, married couples can now pass on to their children $10 million free from any federal estate tax even without sophisticated estate planning documents. Portability applies to lifetime gifts as well as to assets that pass through an estate plan.
3. Does the ACT affect Medicaid Planning?
You should note that the ACT does not affect the advantages of Irrevocable Medicaid Trusts that are designed to protect assets from creditors while allowing a person to qualify for Medicaid. Those trusts are still very much needed if you want to hedge against the risk of losing your hard earned savings or your home to exorbitant long term health care costs. Remember that pre-planning for Medicaid requires that transfers of assets be done 5 years prior to applying for Medicaid benefits. Moreover, trusts remain a good tool for privacy, avoiding probate, and insuring that children from prior marriages are provided for even if you pass away before your current spouse.
Finally, many estate planning issues still remain. The ACT is only in effect through 2012, at which time the entire system will be revisited yet again. Furthermore, although the federal exemption amounts have risen to $5 million per person, the New York State estate tax exemption is still $1 million. Proper estate planning is still essential to save taxes on both the state and federal estate tax levels if you exceed the exemption thresholds.
We at the Law Office of Craig A. Andreoli, P.C. are cautiously optimistic about the ACT until we see how the IRS starts applying the new laws in practice. It is our pleasure to keep you informed and up to date on current happenings in estate planning. If you want more information about the ACT and whether or not the ACT directly affects you and/or your spouse, please feel free to contact us.
Here are some of the photos from my “How to Protect Your Children Through Proper Estate Planning” seminar. I talked about Will provisions that Families with young children should consider. I also gave some suggestions about what traits make a good Guardian, Trustee and Executor. Sound interesting? No worries if you missed this seminar, I’ll be giving a similar seminar in the near future. Check out the Events Calendar for up coming seminars.
I have been very good this year. Please give me the following presents so that I may have peace of mind for the rest of my life.
I want to grant another person (the attorney-in-fact) the legal authority to make financial decisions on my behalf. This attorney-in-fact should be someone I trust to act as my alter ego. He or she should always act in my best interest and in the same manner as I would under the same circumstances. My attorney-in-fact will retain his powers even in the event I become mentally or physically incapacitated because it is a durable power-of-attorney. I can grant as many, or as little, powers as I want under the power-of-attorney, but the powers I want to grant must be specifically detailed.
New York State Health Care Proxy:
My health care proxy will allow me to appoint an agent to carry out my wishes with respect to health care. I will tell my agent what treatments, or non-treatment, I want performed by my treating physicians in the event I can no longer express these wishes to them directly. Of course, one limitation to the health care proxy is that it does not automatically cover the removal of artificial nutrition and hydration (i.e. feeding tubes). If I wish to have feeding tubes withdrawn, my wish must be known by my health care agent. The easiest way is to state that within the health care proxy; so please include a statement to that effect.
In addition to my health care proxy, I want a living will to express my wishes as to what medical care I want or do not want. I do not appoint an agent in a living will, but I can, in great detail, explain my wishes with respect to medical care. Having both a health care proxy and a living will is a good idea. A health care proxy is a product of New York State, which means it may or may not be recognized in other states. Those states that do not recognize a New York State health care proxy may recognize my living will.
Last Will and Testament:
It has been a long time, but I am finally asking for a last will and testament. My last will and testament is a legal document that indicates how I want to distribute my assets after I pass. One of the great aspects of my will is its flexibility. I can determine where my assets go and in what amounts. Recently I established an estate plan. My will is a crucial part to that plan because it allows me to establish trusts for minors, appoint who I want as an executor, trustee and guardian. This gives me great peace of mind knowing that I nominated these very important people opposed to the court.